Caribbean Tenderloin of Pork with a Mango-Cilantro Salsa

serves 4

1 whole pork tenderloin (about 1 1/4 pounds)

2 Tablespoons olive oil

1 Tablespoon Caribbean dry spice mix (recipe, page 155)

1/2 teaspoon kosher salt

lime slices, red bell pepper diamonds and cilantro sprigs for garnish

1 batch of Mango-cilantro salsa (recipe below)

1.   Remove the fat and silver skin from the pork tenderloin.

2.   Coat the pork with olive oil and sprinkle with the Caribbean dry spice mix and kosher salt. Let marinate for at least 2 hours in the refrigerator.


Mango-Cilantro Salsa

1 ripe mango, cut into 1/4-inch cubes

2 Tablespoons finely chopped red onion

2 Tablespoons finely chopped green bell pepper

2 Tablespoons finely chopped red bell pepper

1/8 habanero chili, minced (more if you like it hot)

5 sprigs cilantro, chopped

1/2 lime, juiced

kosher salt and white pepper to taste

  1. To make the mango salsa, combine all ingredients and mix well. Reserve.
  2. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.
  3. Heat a large sauté or grill pan over high heat. Place the pork tenderloin in the hot pan and sear, sealing in the juices. Turn every 20 seconds or so, browning all sides. Transfer the pork to an ovenproof pan and roast in the oven for about 35–40 minutes.
  4. Remove from the oven and let the pork rest for 5 minutes.
  5. To serve, garnish each plate with a lime slice, red bell pepper diamonds and cilantro sprigs. Place a spoonful of salsa on the plate and slice the pork into 3/8-inch slices on the bias.
  6. Divide the pork between the four plates, fanning it out. Serve.

Sautéed Veal Medallions with an Almond-Fig Cream

A rather unusual combination for veal, perhaps, but this is one of my personal favorites. The figs and almonds lend so much texture to this dish and really complement the mild flavors in the veal. If you are one of those people who steers clear of veal, pork tenderloin is a terrific substitute and works equally as well, as do chicken breasts.

Sautéed Veal Medallions with an Almond-Fig Cream
Michael Salmon, In the Kitchen with Michael Salmon

5 ounces dried figs (or 4 fresh figs)
¼ cup port wine
8 4-ounce veal (top round) medallions
Kosher salt and ground white pepper
¼ cup all-purpose flour
Canola oil for frying
1 shallot, minced
¼ cup whole almonds
1 cup heavy cream
6 sprigs fresh thyme
2 Tablespoons unsalted butter
1 teaspoon whole fresh thyme leaves for garnish

Remove the hard stem from the tip of the dried (or fresh) figs. Cut the figs in half and each half into thirds. Place the cut figs into a small bowl and cover with the port wine. Reserve.

If the veal medallions are thicker than a ½ inch, pound them gently between two sheets of plastic wrap. Season the veal with salt and pepper and dredge with flour.

Heat a large sauté pan over medium-high heat. Cover the bottom with a thin layer of canola oil and heat. Gently lay the floured veal medallions in the pan and sear on each side for 2 minutes. Remove to a plate and cover with foil to keep warm.

Place the minced shallot in the pan and stir around for 1 minute. Add the figs and the port wine to the pan along with the almonds. Stir for 1 minute.

Add the heavy cream and 2 whole sprigs of thyme. Reduce the cream to the consistency of a thick sauce and remove the thyme sprigs. Stir in the butter and season with kosher saslt and white pepper to taste.

To serve, place the veal medallions on the serving plate and cover with the sauce. Sprinkle with fresh thyme leaves, garnish with a sprig of fresh thyme, and serve with vegetables and starch of your choice.

Serves 4.

Smoked Salmon Barquettes

by Chef Michael Salmon

yields 12 pieces

1 batch pastry dough (recipe below)

7 oz sliced smoked salmon, reserving 2 oz for garnish

1/4 cup minced red onion

2 Tablespoons capers

1 hard boiled egg, chopped finely

3 scallions finely sliced, green part only

2 Tablespoons chopped fresh dill

1/4 cup sour cream

1 Tablespoon whole grain mustard

2 teaspoons lemon juice

1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper

fresh dill sprigs for garnish

caviar for garnish (optional)

  1. Roll the chilled pastry dough out on a lightly floured surface until it is a 1/8 inch thick rectangle. Spray 12 five-inch barquette (boat shaped) molds lightly with nonstick vegetable spray and arrange them on the table to form a similar sized rectangle area. Drape the pastry gently over the molds and roll over the top with a rolling pin, cutting the dough into the forms. Gently press the dough into the molds. Continue with the remaining barquette molds.
  2. Line the filled shells with a small piece of parchment paper and fill with pie weights or dried beans. Bake in a 350 degree oven for 15 minutes, or until the shells begin to brown lightly. Carefully remove the weights/beans and parchment and bake for another 10 minutes. Cool on a rack for at least 10 minutes before removing the pastry from the molds. Cool completely.
  3. Finely chop 5 oz of the smoked salmon and place in a medium sized mixing bowl with the minced red onion, capers, chopped egg, sliced scallions, chopped dill, sour cream, lemon juice and black pepper. Mix to combine.
  4. Fill the chilled barquette molds with a teaspoon of the smoked salmon filling and cover the top with a small slice of smoked salmon. Garnish the top with a small sprig of fresh dill and a dab of caviar if desired.

Pastry Dough

1 1/3 cup all-purpose flour

3/4 teaspoon kosher salt

1/2 stick (4 Tablespoons) chilled, unsalted butter

1/3 cup vegetable shortening

1/4 cup cold water


1.   In a mixer, combine the flour and salt. Cut the butter into fine cubes and mix into the flour until it resembles a fine meal. Add the shortening and mix for 30 seconds. Add the water and mix only until it combines. Do not overwork. Remove from the mixer and wrap in plastic wrap.

2.   Refrigerate for at least 2 hours.






Stilton Cheese and Shrimp Tartlet with Toasted Pine Nuts and Bosc Pears

by Chef Michael Salmon

serves 6

1 batch Pastry Dough (recipe below)

Vegetable oil

1 Tablespoon unsalted butter

12 large shrimp, peeled and deveined (16–20 per pound)

4 ounces cream cheese

5 ounces Stilton cheese

2 egg yolks

2 teaspoons chopped Italian parsley

3/4 cup heavy cream

Kosher salt and white pepper to taste

1 batch Chive Beurre Blanc (recipe below)

1 ripe bosc pear (other pear varieties will work well also)

2 Tablespoons pine nuts, toasted


  1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees.
  2. Cut six 6-inch rounds of parchment paper. Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface to 1/8 inch thick. Cut into six 5 1/2-inch circles and form into 4-inch tartlet pans (with removable bottoms) that have been sprayed (or brushed) with vegetable oil. The dough should evenly coat the bottom and sides of the tartlet mold. Reserve the remaining dough for another use.
  3. Place one 6-inch parchment round on top of each tartlet and fill with dry beans or pie weights. Bake in the preheated oven for 25 minutes. Remove the tartlets from the oven and empty out the beans or pie weights and parchment paper.
  4. Heat a large sauté pan over medium-high heat. When the pan is hot, add the butter and cook the shrimp for 1 minute on each side, searing them but not cooking them through. Remove from the heat and onto a plate to stop the cooking. Season with salt and white pepper.
  5. Combine the cream cheese and Stilton together in a mixing bowl and mix until smooth.  Add the egg yolks, 1 teaspoon of the chopped parsley, the heavy cream and mix well. Season with salt and white pepper.
  6. Divide the cheese mixture between the tart crusts and place two cooked shrimp on the top of each tartlet. Place the tartlets on a baking sheet and bake in the 350-degree oven for about 50 minutes.
  7. To serve, halve, core and slice the pear into 18 thin wedges. Place the tart in the middle of the serving plate and surround with a few Tablespoons of the chive beurre blanc. Arrange three pear slices on each plate, leaning them against the tartlet, and sprinkle with the toasted pine nuts and the remaining chopped parsley.


Pastry Dough

1 1/3 cups all-purpose flour

3/4 teaspoon kosher salt

4 Tablespoons unsalted butter, chilled

1/3 cup vegetable shortening

1/4 cup cold water


  1. In a mixer, combine the flour and salt. Cut the butter into fine cubes and mix into the flour until it resembles a fine meal. Add the shortening and mix for 30 seconds. Finally add the water and mix only until it combines. Do not overwork. Remove from the mixer and wrap in plastic wrap.
  2. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours.


Chive Beurre Blanc

2 Tablespoons unsalted butter

1 1/2 teaspoons canola oil

1/2 small yellow onion, finely chopped

1/4 cup white wine

1 Tablespoon white wine vinegar

1/4 cup heavy cream

Kosher salt and white pepper to taste

1 Tablespoon finely chopped chives


  1. Dice the butter and bring to room temperature.
  2. Heat the oil in a small 2-quart saucepan. Sauté the onions over medium heat for 2 minutes, but do not allow them to brown. Deglaze with the white wine and vinegar and reduce over medium heat until most of the liquid has evaporated. Again, do not brown. Add the heavy cream and reduce the mixture by half, whisking occasionally.
  3. Remove the pan from the heat and immediately whisk in the butter until well incorporated. Strain through a fine mesh strainer into a small bowl, discarding the solids. Season with salt and white pepper and stir in the chives. Keep in a warm place (not too hot or it will break) until serving.


Prosciutto wrapped Jumbo Shrimp with Maytag Bleu Cheese

yields 24 pieces

24 jumbo raw shrimp, peeled and deveined

Fennel spice mix (recipe below)

1/4 pound Maytag bleu cheese (or other good quality creamy bleu cheese)

12 slices (about 1/4 pound) Prosciutto, sliced a little thicker than usual

2 cups baby spinach leaves

extra virgin olive oil for searing

spicy-lemon aioli (recipe below)

  1. Remove all of the shell from the shrimp, leaving only the tail fin section attached. Also remove the sharp pointed shell piece from the fin section. Shrimp have a natural curl to their shape, and in this dish we want to straighten them out. Place the shrimp on a cutting board (belly down) and gently press on the top of the shrimp. When flattened, butterfly the shrimp by cutting down from the top (the length of the shrimp), almost reaching the bottom, but not cutting through. Gently press the shrimp open and continue butterflying the remaining shrimp.
  2. Sprinkle the shrimp with the spice mix and place some of the bleu cheese in the butterflyed shrimp, wrapping the sides up around the cheese. Slice the Prosciutto slices in half lengthwise and lay a few leaves of the baby spinach on each slice. Place the stuffed shrimp on the narrow end of the Prosciutto slice and roll each shrimp up with the spinach and Prosciutto, leaving the tail fin exposed and secure with a toothpick. Continue rolling the remaining shrimp.
  3. Place a large sauté pan over medium heat. When it is hot, add the olive oil. Place the shrimp in the pan and cook, lightly browning the Prosciutto, about 2 minutes per side or until the shrimp are cooked through. Remove the toothpicks. This dish can be served hot or at room temperature with the spicy-aioli on the side.


Fennel Spice Mix

2 Tablespoons whole fennel seeds, toasted and ground

1 Tablespoon ground black pepper

1 Tablespoon granulated garlic

2 1/2 Tablespoons kosher salt


1.   Place the whole fennel seeds in a small sauté pan and toss over medium-high heat until fragrant and lightly toasted. Finely grind in a spice grinder.

2.   Mix all of the ingredients together until well combined.


Spicy-Lemon Aioli

4 garlic cloves

2 large egg yolks

2 Tablespoons fresh lemon juice

1 teaspoon sweet paprika

1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper

1 teaspoon Dijon mustard

1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil

1/3 cup canola oil

kosher salt to taste


1.   Mince the garlic and mash it with the side of a large knife (using a little salt) until it becomes a smooth paste. In a small mixing bowl, whisk together the egg yolks, lemon juice, paprika, cayenne and Dijon mustard.

2.   While whisking the egg mixture vigorously, add the oils in a very slow stream. Whisk constantly, adding the oil slowly until all of the oil is incorporated. Add the mashed garlic and season with salt. Cover and chill.





Maine Crab and Shrimp Cakes with a Caribbean Remoulade

By Chef MIchael Salmon

serves 6

1/2 pound Maine shrimp meat (titi or small raw shrimp)

2 Tablespoons olive oil

1/4 pound fresh Maine crabmeat (preferably Peeky Toe crabmeat)

1 large egg

1 Tablespoon minced red onion

2 Tablespoons finely chopped celery

2 Tablespoons finely chopped red bell pepper

1/2 cup mayonnaise

1 1/2 cups panko bread crumbs (Japanese)

1/2 teaspoon fresh thyme leaves, chopped

1/2 teaspoon Caribbean dry spice mix (recipe, page 169 of 1st cookbook)

2 Tablespoons canola oil

12 large raw shrimp, peeled and deveined

1 teaspoon olive oil

2 cloves garlic, minced

kosher salt and freshly grated black pepper

Caribbean remoulade (recipe below)

Sweet corn relish (recipe below)

6 fresh thyme sprigs for garnish


1.   Drain the Maine shrimp and remove any shell fragments. Pat dry with paper towels.

2.   In a medium sauté pan, heat the olive oil over medium-high heat and sauté the Maine shrimp for 1 minute. Squeeze the excess water from the crabmeat, and place the crabmeat in a large bowl. Add the cooked shrimp, egg, red onion, celery, red bell pepper, mayonnaise, 1/2 cup of the panko breadcrumbs, thyme and Caribbean dry spice mix. Stir to combine.

3.   Portion the crabmeat mixture into 12 balls and pat down, forming the balls into 3/4-inch high disks. One by one, set the cakes into a bowl with the remaining panko breadcrumbs to coat, pressing slightly and coating on both sides.

4.   Preheat the oven to 300 degrees. Coat the shrimp with the olive oil, garlic and salt and pepper.

5.   Heat a large skillet over medium-high heat. Sauté the crab cakes in 2 Tablespoons canola oil for 2 minutes on each side, until golden brown. Transfer to a baking sheet and keep warm in a 300-degree oven.

6.   Wipe out the sauté pan with a paper towel and return to the heat. When hot, add the shrimp and cook for 30 seconds on each side, or until they become opaque.

7.   To serve, place two crab cakes in the center of the plates, leaning one of them on the other. Place a 2-Tablespoon dollop of Caribbean remoulade in front of the crab cakes and a mound of Sweet corn relish behind them. Place a shrimp on the top of each crab cake. Garnish with fresh thyme sprigs.


Caribbean Remoulade

1/2 cup mayonnaise

1/2 teaspoon Caribbean dry spice mix

1 Tablespoon finely chopped red bell pepper

1 teaspoon capers, chopped

pinch of salt


  1. Combine all ingredients and mix well. Can be made up to 2 days in advance if covered and refrigerated.


Sweet Corn Relish

2 ears fresh corn on the cob

1 Tablespoon minced red onion

2 Tablespoons finely chopped red bell pepper

3 Tablespoons coarsely chopped cilantro

1 lime, juiced

2 teaspoons extra virgin olive oil

kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste


  1. Cut the corn off the cob and blanch in a small pot of salted boiling water for 2 minutes. Strain off water and place the corn in a medium-sized bowl. Spread out to cool. Add the remaining ingredients and toss. The relish should be made at least 2 hours in advance to allow the flavors to combine. It can be made up to 2 days in advance if covered and refrigerated.


Crabmeat Timbale with Baby Greens and a Papaya Seed Dressing

serves 4

1 pound fresh crabmeat

1 Tablespoon whole grain mustard

1/2 cup whipping cream, whipped

1/2 teaspoon minced lemon zest

1 Tablespoon lemon juice

salt and white pepper to taste

1/4 cup canola oil

1/2 cup rice flour sticks (vermicelli) broken into 2-inch pieces

5 ounces baby greens (mesclun mix), washed and dried

Papaya seed dressing

cucumber slices, red radish wedges and papaya slices for garnish


1.   Squeeze the excess water from the crabmeat and place in a medium-sized mixing bowl. Pick through to remove any shell fragments that remain. Add the mustard, whipped cream, lemon zest and juice and mix gently to combine. Season with salt and white pepper. Reserve.

2.   In a small skillet, heat the canola oil until it is smoking hot. Have a slotted spoon and a plate with a few sheets of paper towel on it next to the stove. Add half of the rice sticks to the hot oil; they will puff; as they do, remove them immediately from the oil with the slotted spoon and drain on the paper towels. Repeat with the remaining rice sticks. Sprinkle with a little kosher salt.

3.   To serve, line four small ramekins with plastic wrap (to keep the crabmeat from sticking) and divide the crabmeat mixture between them, compacting it to make a firm mold. Invert the timbale onto the center of a chilled salad plate. Toss the greens with enough dressing to lightly coat each leaf and arrange around the timbale. Garnish with the cucumber slices, radish wedges, papaya slices and crisp rice sticks.


Papaya Seed Dressing

1/2 cup rice wine vinegar

1/2 cup granulated sugar

1/2 cup canola oil

1/4 cup chopped Vidalia onion

1/2 cup chopped fresh papaya

1 Tablespoon papaya seeds

1/2 teaspoon kosher salt

1/2 teaspoon dry mustard


1.   Combine all the ingredients above in a blender and mix until smooth.

Spinach Fettuccine Puttanesca with Shrimp

by Chef Michael Salmon

serves 4

1 Tablespoon salt

2 Tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

1 pound large shrimp, peeled and de-veined

1 batch spinach dough, cut as fettuccine

1 shallot, minced

1/4 cup chopped sun-dried tomatoes

1/4 cup country mixed olives, pitted

1 cup marinara sauce (homemade or your favorite brand)

kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste


1.   Fill a large pot 3/4 full of water and bring to a boil with 1 Tablespoon salt.

2.   Heat a large sauté pan over medium heat and add the olive oil. Add the shrimp and cook on one side for 1 minute.

3.   Drop the spinach fettuccine in the boiling water and cook for 7 minutes or until al dente, stirring occasionally.

4.   Turn the shrimp over and add the minced shallot. Cook for another minute. Add the sun-dried tomatoes and olives and toss. Pour in the marinara sauce and stir, heating the sauce through.

5.   Strain the pasta, allowing all of the water to drain off it, and add it to the pan with the sauce. Mix the pasta in with the sauce and adjust the seasoning with salt and pepper. Serve immediately.


Spinach Pasta Dough

3 1/2 cups pasta flour (semolina)

5 ounces fresh spinach

2 Tablespoons plus warm water

1 large egg, slightly beaten

1 teaspoon salt

1 Tablespoon extra virgin olive oil


  1. In a blender, puree the spinach, water and egg until smooth.
  2. Place the flour on a clean working counter and make a well in the center. Add the spinach liquid, salt and olive oil to the center of the well and gradually mix the dry ingredients into the wet, forming a smooth-soft dough (adding additional water if necessary to make the dough soft).
  3. Knead the dough 10 minutes, wrap tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerate for 1 hour.
  4. This recipe makes a little over 1 1/2 pounds of dough.


Shaping the Pasta

  1. Once your pasta has set up for at least 1 hour in the refrigerator, remove it from the plastic and press it down into a disk on a floured (semolina) work surface. Cut the dough into 4 equal pieces and rewrap 3 of the pieces in the plastic wrap to prevent them from drying out.
  2. With a rolling pin and extra semolina (if needed), roll the dough out to about 1/4 inch thick. If the dough seems sticky, dust it with some semolina.
  3. Set up the pasta machine with a setting of 1 (the highest, thickest setting) and roll the pasta through. Again, if the dough seems sticky, dust it with some semolina. Adjust the thickness to either 5 or 6 (see list below), depending on the pasta shape you are making, and run the dough through the machine at that setting.
  4. Lay the dough out on a floured work surface and follow the guidelines below to make various shapes (scraps can be reworked into a ball and used again). For longer storage of the pasta, dry it overnight (make sure it is well coated with semolina to prevent it from sticking) at room temperature. Store the pasta in freezer bags. Pasta freezes well, and can be kept for up to 3 months.


Fettuccine or Spaghetti by machine: Roll out to setting 6, and cut the sheet into 10-inch sections.  Feed the sheet through the fettuccine or spaghetti attachment on the machine. Dry in a single layer on a baking sheet dusted with semolina.

Fettuccine or Linguine by hand: With a rolling pin, roll out the dough until it is 1/16-inch thin. Cut the sheet into 10-inch sections. Dust the sections with semolina and roll them up. Using a knife, cut the roll of pasta into strips (fettuccine 1/4 inch and linguine 1/8 inch). Unroll the strips and dry in a single layer on a baking sheet dusted with semolina.

Farfalle: Roll out to setting 6, and use a serrated pastry wheel to cut the pasta in 1 1/4-inch strips. Cut the strips into 2 1/2-inches long rectangular sections. To form, place your index finger on the exact center of the rectangular piece of dough and with your other hand, pinch on the narrow sides toward the index finger, forming a bow tie shape. Dry in a single layer on a baking sheet dusted with semolina.

Pappardelle: Roll out to setting 5, and cut the sheet into 10-inch sections. Dust the sections with semolina and roll them up. Using a knife, cut the roll of pasta into strips 1 inch wide. Unroll the strips and dry in a single layer on a baking sheet dusted with semolina.


Baby Spinach with Cumin Roasted Pear and Maytag Bleu Cheese

by Chef Michael Salmon

serves 6

3 bosc pears

1/3 cup walnut halves

1/3 cup dried cranberries

3 Tablespoons walnut oil

2 Tablespoons port wine

2 Tablespoons brown sugar

1/4 teaspoon Kosher salt

2 Tablespoons cumin spice mix (recipe below)

10 oz baby spinach

1/4 pound Maytag bleu cheese (or other good quality creamy bleu cheese)

Honey and walnut dressing (recipe below)


  1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees.
  2. Peel the pears and cut in half lengthwise. Remove the core and stem with a melon-baller and cut each half into 3 equal wedges.
  3. In a medium sized bowl, whisk together the walnut oil, port wine, brown sugar, salt and cumin spice mix. Add the pear wedges, walnut halves and dried cranberries and toss to evenly coat.
  4. Place a silpat mat or piece of parchment paper on a baking sheet and spread out the pear mixture on top. Roast in the preheated oven for 10 minutes. Remove and cool to room temperature.
  5. To serve, toss the baby spinach with enough of the honey and walnut dressing to coat. Arrange the roasted pear wedges on the plate and sprinkle with the cranberries, walnuts and crumbled bleu cheese.


Honey and Walnut Dressing

1/2 cup walnut oil

1 Tablespoon crushed walnuts

1 Tablespoon minced shallot

2 Tablespoons sherry vinegar

2 teaspoons Dijon mustard

2 Tablespoons honey

Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper


  1. Heat the walnut oil in a small saucepan over medium heat. When it gets very warm (not hot), add the crushed walnuts and shallots and allow it to steep off the heat until cool.
  2. In a medium-size bowl, whisk together the vinegar, mustard and honey. While whisking, slowly drizzle in the cooled walnut oil until incorporated. Season with salt and pepper to taste.


Cumin Spice Mix

1/2 cup light brown sugar

2 Tablespoons chili powder

1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin

2 teaspoons whole cumin

1 teaspoon ground coriander

1/2 teaspoon ground cardamom

1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon

1/4 teaspoon ground cayenne pepper

2 teaspoons whole anise seeds

Mix the sugar and spices together.





Morning Glory Muffins

by Chef Michael Salmon

These are delicious and filled with so many nutritious ingredients!

 

1 1/3 cups all-purpose flour

2/3 cup granulated sugar

3/4 teaspoon baking soda

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon

2/3 cup grated carrots

1/2 cup shredded coconut

1/2 cup raisins

1/3 cup crushed pineapple

1/2 cup peeled & shredded apple

1/3 cup chopped walnuts

2 large eggs

1/2 cup canola oil

1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract

2 Tablespoons rolled oats

 

  1. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees.
  2. Mix flour, sugar, baking soda, salt and cinnamon together in a large bowl.
  3. Add the carrots, coconut, raisins, pineapple, apple and walnuts. Mix to combine.
  4. In another bowl, mix together the eggs, oil and vanilla. Stir into the dry ingredients and mix well.
  5. Spray large muffin tins with cooking spray and scoop in the muffin mix with the large #16 scoop. Sprinkle the tops with rolled oats.
  6. Bake in the center of the preheated oven for about 20-25 minutes, until they are lightly browned. Cool slightly and serve warmed or at room temperature.